Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Macedonia (Historical Dictionaries of Europe)

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The Dictionary traces the history of Macedonia from the cAontext of the Ancient Macedonian Kingdom, through its control by the Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman Empires, up to the present day. Additional Product Features Dewey Edition. Show More Show Less. No ratings or reviews yet. Be the first to write a review. Best Selling in Nonfiction See all. Open Borders Inc. Permanent Record by Edward Snowden , Hardcover 1. Save on Nonfiction Trending price is based on prices over last 90 days.

You may also like. Reference Dictionaries, Thesauri Books. The implementation of the agreement has given Albanian-dominated municipalities a large measure of selfrule, even in sensitive areas like policing. In Albanian was recognized as an official language in the Skopje municipality. Arrested by the Ottoman police in March , Aleksandrov was sentenced to five years of solitary confinement. Aleksandrov was among the initiators of the renewed armed activities in and organized a series of dynamite attacks against the Ottoman authorities in Macedonia.

In , Aleksandrov, serving as an officer in the Bulgarian army, commanded the violent suppression of the uprising in Bulgarian-occupied Morava Valley in Serbia by Macedonian paramilitaries. Aleksandrov resuscitated the IMRO, and established firm control over Pirin Macedonia, turning it into a base for incursions into the eastern parts of Serb-held Macedonia.

After he personally commanded a series of guerrilla offensives that attracted a great deal of coverage in the Western press, putting the Macedonian Question on the international agenda. He came to blows with Bulgarian Prime Minister Stambolijski, keen to improve relations with Yugoslavia.

The campaign led to the utter defeat of the rival federalist bands supported by the Stambolijski cabinet. Disenchanted with the new government, Aleksandrov turned for support to the Soviet Union. His representative Dimitar Vlahov negotiated with representatives of the Comintern in Vienna.

The outcome was the May Manifesto, pledging joint action against all Balkan states with the goal of creating an independent Macedonia. As the Comintern published the manifesto, Aleksandrov disavowed it, claiming his letter of authorization had been forged. During his campaigns against the Persians and the kingdoms in Bactria, Sogdiana, and the Indus Valley, Alexander conquered extensive territories spanning from the Balkans into central Asia.

The figure of Alexander has been of high emotional significance not only to Greek nationalism in Macedonia but also to some Macedonian Slavs. The popularity of Alexander peaked with the Greek-Macedonian conflict in the s, which focused on, among other things, the issue of who has a better claim to the legacy of Macedon. In Macedonia, Alexander has also been appropriated by certain nationalist writers and activists rejecting the Slavic ethnic pedigree of the Macedonians. Aliti was the leader of the Party for Democratic Prosperity.

In —, he served as deputy speaker of the Macedonian parliament and in was appointed ambassador to Bulgaria. Leading Albanian literary critic and scholar from former Yugoslavia, born in the village of Krani near Resen. Accused of spreading ethnic unrest through his columns discussing the Albanian demonstrations in Tetovo, Aliu relocated to neighboring Kosovo and found employment in the local paper Rilindja Renaissance. In , he obtained a doctorate from the newly inaugurated Prishtina University. Aliu taught at the university and authored a great number of books dealing with Albanian language and literature.

Conglomerate of tribes that during antiquity populated present-day Greek Macedonia and the southernmost areas of the Republic of Macedonia. Though the ancient Macedonian language has survived only in a few fragments, it is considered by some a likely relative of neighboring Thracian and Illyrian dialects. Another school relates it to the Doric dialects of Ancient Greek. While the Ancient Macedonians were considered barbarians by their Greek neighbors beyond the Olympus, by the end of the 5th century BC, the native aristocracy was substantially Hellenized and exposed to the influence of the city-states in the south and their colonies.

Ancient Macedonians were the core of the Kingdom of Macedon, which reached the peak of its might under Alexander the Great in the 4th century. In the latter part of the 20th century, Slavic Macedonian and Greek nationalists, especially in the diaspora, have vied for the heritage of Ancient Macedonians, each claiming to be their rightful ethnic heirs. As a rule, mainstream historiography in Yugoslav Macedonia was cautious, arguing that the link with present-day Macedonians was, at best, indirect.

Since independence, however, extreme writers and publications have rejected completely the notion of Slavic origins in an attempt to establish a continuum between the modern nation and the glorious times of Alexander and Philip II. A spirits merchant and restaurant owner from the town of Prilep, Andonov was active as an opposition politician in the s, and in and ran in the parliamentary elections.

Between and , he was twice imprisoned by the Yugoslav authorities for his part in organizing Ilinden commemorations, escaping narrowly an execution in April After his release, in October , he joined the partisans in the Italian-occupied western Macedonia, influenced by his fellow townsman Kuzman Josifovski-Pitu. A political figure popular across the Vardar region, Andonov headed the convening committee of the ASNOM that proclaimed the establishment of a Macedonian republic within federal Yugoslavia.

Andonov was forced to resign in March The arrest led to disturbances: in the town of Resen, police reportedly killed 37 pro-Andonov protesters. High-profile politician and public figure. Born in Kavadarci, Andov held several high-ranking jobs in the federal government in Belgrade in the s and s, including ambassador to Iraq — Andov served as a parliamentary speaker twice in — and —, and was a caretaker president after the attack against Kiro Gligorov on 3 October He ran usuccessfully for the office in the presidential elections four years later. Following his failure to make it into the second round, in December , his supporters split from the LDP to establish the Liberal Party of Macedonia, which ran together with the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary OrganizationDemocratic Party for Macedonian National Unity in the general elections.

In , again as a member of parliament, Andov initiated a lustration law to bar collaborators of the former communist secret services from public offices. Communist functionary, republican leader in Yugoslav Macedonia. Born in Veles, Andreev joined the Yugoslav communists in the early s as a student in Belgrade.

He was persecuted and imprisoned on a number of occasions by the Yugoslav authorities. During the Cominform crisis Andreev was dismissed from all party and government posts and spent the rest of his life in obscurity. Adreev fell from grace with Josip Broz Tito partly because of his friendship with the Croatian communist Andrija Hebrang, one of the most high-profile victims of the purges. Eminent writer and intellectual.

Historical Dictionary of North Macedonia

Andreevski was also a member of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts. His oeuvre includes a great number of poems, short stories, and novels. Andreevski explores the tangled history of Vardar Macedonia.

Pirej Weed , published in , is set during World War I, while the Poslednite selani The Last Peasants tells the story of the disintegration of rural society in the latter part of the 20th century. A body set up by the communist partisans in the summer of Its first session took place at the St. Yugoslav Macedonian historiography named the event as the Second Ilinden.

The assembly was attended by deputies, many of whom had not been elected but represented local communist groups. The ASNOM had considerable symbolic significance in terms of the nation- and state-building process in the Vardar region. The session at the St. Prohor of Pcinja monastery proclaimed the establishment of a Macedonian republic in the framework of federal Yugoslavia, with the ASNOM as its supreme legislative and executive body.

It also adopted a resolution on the Macedonian literary language. The body transformed itself into a republican parliament in April A platform dominated by the Yugoslav communists that was established in November to administer the partisan-held territories in Bosnia. The second session in the Bosnian town of Jajce a year later declared the establishment of federal Yugoslavia with Macedonia as one of the constituent republics. Prominent politician, military leader, and historian.

Apostolski was educated at a military school. He served as an officer in the Yugoslav army, reaching the rank of a major at the time of the Nazi invasion of Yugoslavia in the spring of Later, however, he joined the communist partisans and headed their headquarters. After retiring in , Apostolski conducted historical research on the Yugoslav partisan movement during World War II. He was later accused of exaggerating the intensity of the communist resistance in the Vardar region. A member of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts since the very start, Apostolski became its director in He was also head of the Institute for National History between and , as well as editor-in-chief of the three-volume History of the Macedonian People published in In the newly founded military academy in Skopje was named after him.

Macedonian Albanian politician. Born in Tetovo, Arifi obtained a Ph. She taught Albanian literature at Skopje University as well as at the Southeast European University in her native town. Arifi was also an adviser at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, specializing in international human rights organizations.

Elected to the Macedonian parliament in as part of the Democratic Union for Integration, she headed the foreign relations committee until The ARM claims a long tradition. In the federal setting, the republics maintained their own territorialdefense structures Teritorijalna odbrana , constituting the second tier of the Yugoslav strategic setup. This was hardly a solid basis to build upon. During their relocation, the YPA troops took away most of the military hardware and heavy weaponry. Furthermore, despite the proportional representation principle, only a few Macedonians had occupied top positions in the YPA echelons, so the pool of experienced officers to draw on was very limited.

The ARM troops, 20, strong, had an upper hand in terms of heavy weaponry, especially tanks and the Soviet-designed Mi helicopter gunships piloted by Ukrainians, and were reinforced by police paramilitary units e. However, the NLA guerrillas maintained control over the mountain villages near Tetovo and Kumanovo and appeared near Skopje in June As in the case of the police, one of the chief preoccupations of the Ohrid Framework Agreement, more Albanians were promoted to higher positions. There have also been several Albanian deputy ministers of defense. Reforms also involved restructuring the ARM into a more compact, mobile, and better resourced force.

This entailed a decrease of personnel numbers to some 7, and the early retirement of officers. In October , conscription was abolished and the ARM was fully professionalized. Yet, as in other transition countries, there are concerns over corruption in the military. It is a founding party to the Multinational Peace Force in Southeast Europe, established through a regional agreement signed in Skopje 26 September More than Macedonian infantrymen were deployed after as part of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan.

In , Macedonia also sent troops to the United States-led contingent in Iraq. Later Arsov served as speaker of the republican assembly and president of the presidium. This is observable in the Byzantine frescoes in its medieval churches and monasteries, including some fine examples of the Paleologue renaissance to be found in the historic town of Ohrid. As elsewhere in the Balkans, Ottoman rule left its mark too. It is seen in the magnificent mosques and public buildings in Skopje, Bitola, and other localities, lushly decorated with painted tiles and stucco details, many of which date back to the classical period of Ottoman art 15th—18th centuries.

The boundary between sacred and profane art was fuzzy. Woodwork and frescoes also decorated the homes of well-to-do townsfolk of all creeds and ethnicities in a number of Macedonian settlements.

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Drawing on the rich Ottoman traditions, local craftsmen also specialized in decorative arts producing fine textiles, jewelery, kilims, pottery, and metalwork. The processes of gradual Westernization bred new tastes and fashions. These painters spent long periods of their careers outside Macedonia: in Belgrade, Zagreb, and assorted western European capitals. Others, such as Dimitar Pandilov — , worked in emigration in Bulgaria.

They all drew inspiration from the natural landscapes and rural life in Macedonia. The s generation was involved in the establishment of a specialized school, the Association of Visual Artists , as well as an art gallery in Skopje In , the Museum of Contemporary Art was opened, built with donations following the Skopje earthquake seven years before. The period saw the development of genres such as sculpture, represented by Tome Serafimovski — ; graphic art; scenography; design; and art photography.

Macedonia turned into a popular location for colonies of artists from Yugoslavia and abroad. After the s, local artists were able to gradually move away from the dogmas of socialist realism that defined the immediate postwar years. Yet art was intimately linked to politics. Leader of the federalist faction within the Macedonian movement after World War I. Atanasov was a founding member of the Macedonian Emigrant Federative Organization in In , Atanasov participated in the establishment of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization United in Vienna and cooperated with the Soviet intelligence service.

Atanasov died in Moscow in The term refers to the slogan of autonomous Macedonia. Autonomists were opposed to the left-wing faction of the Federalists. Mountainous area in southwest Veles along the Babuna River. From to , Azot was one of the bases of the communist partisans.

He became one of the leaders of the Serb nationalist cause and fought the Internal MacedonoAdrianopolitan Revolutionary Organization, whose guerrillas murdered his brother and nephew in Notable musicologoist and ethnographer. A native of Prilep, Badev was a longtime teacher in the Bulgarian Exarchist schools.

He is credited with collecting and studying a great number of folk songs from Macedonia. He authored a number of propaganda pamphlets. Due to his proGerman sympathies, Badev was killed by the Bulgarian communists in September Popular singer, an iconic figure of the folk scene in Yugoslav Macedonia. Umbrella organization established in Sofia by the Bulgarian, Yugoslav, and Greek communist parties in Military conflict that ended Ottoman rule in Macedonia.

As the Bulgarian troops were concentrated in the Thracian theater, for the most part, both zones were conquered by the Serbian army, which defeated the Ottoman troops at Kumanovo and Prilep. Their advance, assisted by Internal Macedono-Adrianopolitan Revolutionary Organization and Serb paramilitary units, met south of Bitola with the Greek forces that had taken Salonica on 26 October The war ended with the Treaty of London of 17 May This was followed by the Second Balkan War, which broke out in June after the Bulgarians launched simultaneous attacks against Serb and Greek positions.

The fateful decision was driven by the hope to make larger territorial gains in Vardar and Aegean Macedonia. The offensive ended in a failure, and the Bulgarians were pushed back into a retreat. Though they subsequently managed to reverse the Serb and Greek advance, they soon sued for peace when Romania and Turkey entered the war. Albanian nationalist organization established in the autumn of with the help of the Italian authorities in Albania proper and western Macedonia. It drew support from northern Albanian notables, nationalist intellectuals, and, in Macedonia, from some local Muslim clerics.

Their network survived after the capitulation of Italy in September It also collaborated with the Nazi forces. Byzantine emperor — from the Macedonian Dynasty. Basil fought long wars against the tsardom of Samuel, seen by Yugoslav Macedonian historians as a state of the Macedonian Slavs.

He was murdered by the Greek authorities in June together with Archimandrite Eulogius, a leader of the Bulgarian Exarchist community in Salonica. Activist born in Gorno Brodi near Serres, nowadays in Greece. After being a band member for some time, in , he returned to the Salonica High School as a history teacher. The capital of Serbia and later Yugoslavia. Since the 19th century, Belgrade attracted labor migrants from Macedonia. These migrations were a channel for the spread of the modern Serb national idea in the area. After the s, Belgrade was a center of a number of political and cultural institutions propagating the irredentism toward Macedonia and Kosovo see ST.

After Belgrade was a major educational, cultural, and economic focal point for the new elites in Vardar Macedonia. In the communist period, high-ranking Skopje politicians such as Kiro Gligorov or Lazar Mojsov pursued careers at the federal institutions based in Belgrade. Belgrade was also the destination for professional and working-class Macedonians.

Belgrade print publications, radio, and TV programs were widely available and very popular across Yugoslav Macedonia. Peace treaty that ended the Russian-Turkish War of — This clause was later used by the Internal Macedono-Adrianopolitan Revolutionary Organization in its campaign against the Ottoman authorities. There he finished the local military school and worked as an officer in the Serbian army. In Berovski returned to Berovo, where he organized in an armed insurgency against the Ottoman authorities. In the Russian-Turkish War of —, his detachments aided the Russian forces.

Berovski directed the headquarters of the Kresna Uprising in — City in the southwestern part of the Republic of Macedonia. It has a population of 74, inhabitants, according to the census. Nearly 90 percent are Macedonians, but there are also severalthousands-strong Roma and Albanian communities. Most of them fully embraced Hellenism, making Bitola an outpost of Greek culture in the mainly Slavic hinterland, though many sided with the Romanian cultural institutions in the town.

Bitola also had substantial Muslim ca. Bitola was therefore at the forefront of the nationalist struggles in Macedonia, with all communities fighting to establish a foothold and seeking favors from the great power consulates in the city. Many of the hostilities during the Ilinden Uprising took place in the vicinity of Bitola, though the city itself was not affected. It was in Bitola where Albanian political activists decided in to adopt the Latin script as the national alphabet. The same year, the riot of the local garrison led to the outbreak of the Young Turk Revolution.

After the Balkan Wars Bitola lost much of its former significance.


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The times of the consuls, fondly remembered by the locals to this very day, were gone. Its Hellenized bourgeoisie left for Greece in great numbers. Bitola and its surroundings were badly affected by the confrontation between the Entente forces and the German and Bulgarian armies during World War I. Conquered by the Bulgarians in October , the city was taken back by Russian infantry and Serbian cavalry in November As the new front line was set in the nearby mountains, Bitola came under constant artillery fire and was even subjected to poison-gas attacks by the Germans.

Part of the population left; more than 1, Jews sought refuge in Salonica in , while some of their coreligionists even headed for New York. Bitola revived during the interwar decades. For their part, the majority of Muslims had left for Turkey in the preceding decades. Those Vlachs who remained in the city were gradually assimilated into the Slavic Macedonian majority. During the communist period, the city experienced industrial development and urbanization. Though over time, it lost its place as the second most important center in the country to Kumanovo and Tetovo, Bitola benefited from the establishment of local cultural institutions, such as a university named after St.

Clement of Ohrid and a film festival dedicated to the Manaki brothers. A longtime researcher at the Institute for National History, Bitoski has published extensively on the history of Internal Macedono-Adrianopolitan Revolutionary Organization in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Ancient Greek History - Rise of Macedon Part 1 - 45

He also occasionally identified himself as a Macedonian Slav. Preliminary agreements concluded in July by Josip Broz Tito and Georgi Dimitrov on the creation of the federal state with enlarged Macedonia as one of the constituent republics. Supportive of the project, Dimitrov nonetheless rejected the Yugoslav proposal for unification of Vardar and Pirin Macedonia even prior to the establishment of the federation.

Eminent scholar born in Leunovo near Gostivar. Bogoev published widely in the field of economics and economic history. Medieval dualistic heresy originating from the Balkans that incorporated ideas borrowed from Manichaeism and Gnosticism. Bogomilism spread in Bulgaria, Serbia, and Byzantium and is thought to have influenced later heretical movements in western Europe, such as the Cathars, the Waldensians, and the Lollards.

Whether the medieval Church of Bosnia followed the Bogomil doctrine remains a subject of historical controversy. Boris is credited with establishing a center of Slavic learning in Ohrid, where he sent his emissaries St. Clement, considered by some the father of the Cyrillic script, and St. Politician and public figure revered by Macedonian nationalists. As head of the police, he took a hard-line stance during the conflict with the Albanian National Liberation Army.

Communist activist, one of the first partisans in Vardar Macedonia. He was one of the organizers of the attacks against the Bulgarian police station, post office, and prison in Prilep on 11 October British left-wing publicist, writer, and political campaigner. Brailsford led the British Relief Mission in Macedonia in and , after the suppression of the Ilinden Uprising. In he published Macedonia: Its Races and Their Future, an exceptionally valuable document on the social and political conditions in the region.

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From to , Brailsford was a member of the commission investigating the Balkan Wars established by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, and also coauthored the final report. Political activist. He took part in the Ilinden Uprising and in the s was one of the leading members of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization United in Serb-held Macedonia, for which he was imprisoned for seven years. Later, however, he fell out with the Titoist leadership of the Communist Party of Macedonia, due to his autonomist leanings and support for the Cominform resolution.

Peace treaty concluded on 10 August following the Second Balkan War.


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It cemented the partition of geographic Macedonia by Greece, Serbia, and Bulgaria. The territories gained by Serbia 25, square kilometers, 39 percent of the total formed the basis of present-day Republic of Macedonia. The territorial status quo established in Bucharest, however, has survived largely intact until this very day.

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He was also the leader of the social democrats during the term of his government, but he was forced to resign after the loss in the parliamentary elections in Earlier in the year, Buckovski had backed the idea to have joint celebrations of the Ilinden Uprising, together with Bulgaria. In , he was prosecuted on charges of corruption involving supplies for the Macedonian army. The disputes date back to the s, when the Bulgarian Communist Party reversed its policy on the Macedonian Question and claimed that historically the Slavs of Macedonia were of Bulgarian stock.

Bulgaria also granted Macedonia military aid and later backed Georgievski, both politically and with military supplies, in the conflict with the National Liberation Army. The shared orientation toward the European Union EU and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, which Bulgaria joined in and respectively, also improved political and economic relations.

With the arrival of the Bulgarian administrative and military authorities in Vardar Macedonia in May , the Action Committees were abolished, while their newspaper, Macedonia, was replaced by Celokupna Bulgarija Integral Bulgaria. Still, many of the activists were swiftly reemployed in the new administrative structures of the province. It was succeeded by the Bulgarian Socialist Party. Most left-wing Macedonian activists also belonged to its ranks. It played a key part in the establishment of the Balkan Communist Federation in and of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization United in , which acted as its subsidiary.

In the interwar decades, BCP, known since as Workers Party or Bulgarian Workers Party Communists , stood for the establishment of a Balkan federation with Macedonia as one of the constituent republics. The latter won the debate in Moscow, and the pro-Bulgarian communists in Vardar Macedonia lost power to a new generation loyal to Belgrade. The BCP conducted a full-blown campaign for the promotion of a Macedonian identity and language in the Pirin area and the Macedonian diaspora in the big cities, criticized by historiographers as illegitimate and marred by coercion from the late s onward.

The plans failed after the Cominform crisis in The party encouraged historical research demonstrating the Bulgarian ethnicity of the Macedonian Slavs and denied Yugoslav claims that Pirin Macedonia was home to a non-Bulgarian minority. The controversy lasted into the s and s, setting the background for the bilateral relations between Sofia and Skopje after The exarchate attracted Macedonian Slavs in huge numbers from its rival the ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, as demonstrated by the plebiscites in the districts of Skopje and Ohrid in Bulgarian historiography credits the exarchate with the consolidation of the national consciousness of the local Slavs in Macedonia and Thrace, a majority of whom chose its jurisdiction.

By contrast, post- Yugoslav Macedonian authors regard it as an agent of forceful propaganda and assimilation. Exarch Joseph I and the clergy nevertheless opposed the radical methods of the organization. Its legacy lasted in the interwar period but waned with the coming of age of a new generation that had not been through its school system. Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization operative. She relocated to Skopje in Sentenced to oblivion after , the memory of Buneva resurfaced again in the s, starting off a major controversy in Macedonia due to her proBulgarian, Mihajlovist sympathies.

At the center of the public battles are the commemorative plaque in downtown Skopje as well as the annual commemorations attended by activists from Bulgaria and Bulgarophile Macedonians. Term used since the 19th century with reference to the Eastern Roman Empire. The city of Salonica, the administrative and commercial crossroads of the area, remained the second most important Byzantine center until its capture by the Ottomans in He died in a skirmish with the Greek military during the Second Balkan War.

Communist functionary. During the Bulgarian annexation of Macedonia, she was one of the leaders of the partisan resistance in Bitola. Romanian academic, specialist in southeast European ethnography and linguistics. He later obtained a doctorate from Leipzig University, where he worked under the supervision of the leading Balkanologist Gustav Weigand, an authority on Vlach ethnography. In he was elected to the Romanian Academy of Sciences.

Capidan published extensively on the Romance dialects spoken south of the Danube, including Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, and Istroromanian found in the Istrian Peninsula in the north Adriatic , as well as on Vlach folklore and ethnography. Renowned intellecC tual, writer, diplomat, and politician. In , he joined the Democratic Alternative DA. He played a significant part in the reestablishment of the organization after World War I and was one of the signatories of the May Manifesto in Macedonian commuC nist leader.

Folklore collector and educator born in Prilep. He is known for the extensive collection of songs, tales, sayings, oaths, and customs gathered over a period of 40 years. The material was published by the Bulgarian Ministry of Education in and in several volumes. Cepenkov also authored poems, songs, a play, and an autobiography.

He was involved in the struggles in his native city against the Constantinople Patriarchate. Cepenkov died in Sofia, bequeathing his archive to the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Playwright celebrated as C one of the pioneers of Macedonian drama. It was filmed in in Yugoslav Macedonia. In the interwar period, he was active in the Macedonian organizations in Sofia.

His plays were popular in Bulgaria and the diaspora in North America. C born in the village of Dermanci in northern Bulgaria. In , however, he fell out with Sandanski and relaunched guerrilla operations against the Ottoman government. From to , he was twice elected a member of the Bulgarian parliament from the Strumica district. Armed guerrilla unit. American author and politician, originally from Aegean Macedonia. After , Christowe served for 12 years in the state legislature of Vermont. He visited Yugoslav Macedonia in and was granted an honorary doctorate from the University of Skopje.

Originally a supporter of Todor Aleksandrov, Ciklev joined his federalist rivals in After the Bulgarian annexation of Vardar Macedonia in , Ciklev was arrested, transferred to Kjustendil in Bulgaria, and murdered. Although the first movie theater opened in Veles as early as , Macedonian cinema developed only in the decades following World War II. The industry celebrates the Manaki brothers as its founding fathers, naming after them the film festival in Bitola inaugurated in Yet the first Macedonian-language film, Frosina, appeared in , produced by the newly established Vardar Films.

Cinema became a powerful instrument of nation-building and political mobilization. These pictures, often shot by directors from other Yugoslav republics, explored themes such as the partisan movement, the anti-Ottoman struggles, and the Greek Civil War. Occasionally authors tried other genres too: the first Macedonian comedy, Peaceful Summer, appeared in under the directorship of Dimitrie Osmanli, who also produced, in , Memento, a tale of the Skopje earthquake.

From the heroic past, the focus shifted to individual drama and the dilemmas of modern life. Its release came at the height of the war in Bosnia and struck a note with the international audience, which led to an Oscar nomination. The picture opened the door for a new wave of talented filmmakers including Ivo Trajkov, whose Great Water revisited the political repressions of the late s through the eyes of an orphaned boy, and the artistic trio Labina, Teona, and Vuk Mitevski How I Killed a Saint, ; I Am from Titov Veles, Celebrated writer. He was noted for the short stories he published over the course of the s and s that made him the leading representative of his generation.

Its publication coincided with the relative liberalization under Krste Crvenkovski. An award-winning film based on the novel, directed by Ivo Trajkov, was released in Prominent communist, member of the partisan movement. Born in Prilep, Ciriviri joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia in Belgrade, where her family lived during the interwar period. Returning to Macedonia in , Ciriviri was active in the communist resistance movement against the Bulgarian authorities between and She was one of the organizers of the attack against the Prilep police department on 11 October Ciriviri traveled around Vardar Macedonia building secret communist cells.

He was sentenced for antistate activities at the Skopje student trial in and served 10 years in prison. Close to the Bulgarian authorities, C death on charges of collaboration in and executed the following year. Medieval cleric, political figure, and educator. Clement was one of the disciples of St. Methodius who followed them from the Balkans into Great Moravia and Panonia.

In he found refuge together with St. Naum and St. Angelarius in the Bulgarian Princedom. There he established a famous school at the St. Panteleimon Monastery in Ohrid that spread the Slavic language and education among the local population. He was a prolific writer and is credited by some with the invention of the Cyrillic script combining the Greek alphabet and Glagolitic characters.

Clement died in and was buried in his Ohrid monastery. He was celebrated in a vita written in Greek by Theophylactus, a Byzantine archbishop of Ohrid 10th—11th centuries. Legends associated with his persona were popular in Ohrid and its surroundings, where Clement Kliment remained a widespread masculine name. The universities of Sofia established and Bitola are both named after St. In , the city cathedral in Skopje was inaugurated, which has the saint as its patron. It was proclaimed a national holiday in the Republic of Macedonia in by the government of Nikola Gruevski.

Organization established by the Soviet communists in September during a conference in Poland. It succeeded the Comintern, dissolved in In Yugoslavia, the crisis resulted in purges against local communists siding with the Soviet line, many of whom were sent to the infamous camp in the Adriatic island of Goli Otok present-day Croatia. The Cominform crisis destroyed the plans for a Bulgarian-Yugoslav federation and the formal unification of Pirin and Vardar Macedonia.

Political party established by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia on 19 March at a meeting in Tetovo, then in the Italian occupation zone, on the basis of the preexisting Provincial Committee Pokrajinski komitet. The first congress was held only in In June , the Communist Party of Macedonia CPM issued a manifesto calling for unity of all Macedonians, regardless of their hitherto national sympathies. Its cadres, rising from about from — to 6, in and 43, in , drove forward the nation-building process in Vardar Macedonia.

Unlike other Yugoslav communist parties, the CPM adhered closely to communist orthodoxy. The only exception was in the s, when power was in the hands of the liberal leadership of Krste Crvenkovski. In , the party was succeeded by the Social Democratic Alliance of Macedonia. Political party established in Annual bibliograpy. Smith and Marita V. Grunts Call Number: Covers with annual supplements for Not on shelf. Consult library staff if interested in procuring this item. Also available through I-Share. Mikhov Call Number: Covers articles published Todorov Call Number: Croatia by Cathie Carmichael Call Number: Ukraine : a bibliographic guide to English-language publications by Bohdan S.

Wynar Call Number: See also Independent Ukraine : a bibliographic guide to English-language publications, Call Number: Q. Nationalism in the Balkans: An Annotated Bibliography. Southeastern Europe Biographical Archive by U. Approximately , biographies on fiche, from the 9th century to the present, sourced from about reference works originally published between and Part of World Biographical Information System. Part of the World Biographical Information System. Hupchick and Harold E. Cox Call Number: For example: Thrace --Historical geography.

Macedonia --Historical geography. Serbia --Historical geography. Or try subject words "history" and "maps". For example: Poland --History --Maps. Updated by Historical atlas of Central Europe. Political maps of Balkan Peninsula circa , , and Shows distribution of ethnic majority groups.

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